Friday, February 21, 2014

Makers of the Modern Maithili Literature

Knowing the modern Maithili literature through the angle of social history has remained elusive so far. This piece(its full version is anthologized in Mithila:Rich Heritage,Proud Identity/edited by Ratneshwar Mishra&Pankaj Kumar Jha,Readers Press2013) attempts to draw the attention back to the five remarkable Maithili writers of the twentieth century, who left deep impressions on Maithili literature and Mithila’s socio-cultural fabric. Five writers viz; Harimohan Jha, Baidyanath Mishra ‘Yatri’, Rajkamal Chaudhary, Lalit and Dhumketu have been chosen for looking on a creatively charged phase that also was a very productive time for Maithili literature

Harimohan Jha: The renaissance man of Maithili Literature
Harimohan Jha, the renaissance man of the language of great Vidyapati and Jyotireshwar Thakur was born on September 18 1908. His father, Pandit Janardan Jha ‘Janshidan’ was a great scholar and had credit of being the first modern novelist in Maithili.

The year 1933, was proved epochmaking for the Maithili literature and for that, big credit goes to Harimohan Jha. This year, his magnum-opus novel, Kanyadan received an unprecedented response from literati as well as from the common folks-later it became a household name. It’s worth noting that, Harimohan Jha has written this book in his undergraduate years in Patna University, and by the time of its release, he was only in his mid twenties.

This novel, Kanyadan, proved milestone of success in Maithili literature with amazing popularity and reach. This book simply attained the scale, which no other literary work in Maithili has succeeded to meet again. Harimohan Jha has chosen satirical expression to lodge his dissatisfaction with the prevailing stark ignorance in the life of Maithili women. The female protagonist, ‘Buchhi Dai’s feeble awareness of worldly knowledge reflects the lack of education and progressive approaches in the contemporary Maithili society.

Her indifference with the expectations of a young university student/groom, C.C.Mishra earmarked the narration of further text to an extent. It was Harimohan Jha’s own experience that compelled him to write for female emancipation.
Only he slightly changed the locale and used Banaras Hindu University in place of Patna University, where he went through the similar feelings and conceptualization of his rock-solid thoughts. Legendary mark of his first work encouraged him for its sequel, Dwiragman, which came in 1949 and proved equally sensational since it was seen as footprint of women’s emancipation.

Harimohan Jha was a focussed multitasker, so he also remarkably contributed to the stream of philosophy; with Nyay Darshan in 1940 and Vaisheshik Drshan in 1943. He kept the flamboyance till 1960 and produced iconic works like-Pranamya Devta (1945), Khattar Kakak Tarang (1948), Rangsala (1949), Tirth Yatra (1953), Charchari (1960), Nigman Tarkshastra (1952), Bhartiya Darshan (Translation, 1953).

He was true repository of verbal intelligence and had equal commitment for verses; he composed numerous meaningful poems to unleash those specialties. His poems like ‘Maach’, ‘Dhala Jha’, ‘Buchkun Baba’, Pundit O’ Mem’, ‘Pundit,’ etc., were vigorously energized. Harimohan Jha consolidated great moments in Maithili literature along with his contemporaries.

He kept his creative fervor till the end of his life-his research work ‘Trends of Linguistic Analysis in Indian Philosophy’ (post retirement) justified his perfect commitment. The only regret of his creative life remained the cinematic adaptation of his representative novel, Kanyadan- its alien direction and cold responses from the viewers further restrained him to allow such more experiments.

This is a less known fact that Harimohan Jha was also an accomplished editor, which he displayed in Jayanti Smarak (Pushtak Bhandar, 1942) along with Acharaya Shivpujan Sahay and Achutanand Datta. This work holds unique position in Maithili language. At the same time he was a great oral traditionist, with amazing command over the Mimansa (a philosophical branch, originated from Mithila). Khattar Kakkak Tarang is the outcome of those experimental metaphors.

To summarize, Harimohan Jha’s literary contributions have relentless universal values and would remain undeniable. In fact, his literary journey was like the soul-searching of his loving region, for that, he precisely tried to cover its intricacies.

The World of Yatri

Baidyanath Mishra, who with his independent and resilient intellect came to known as Yatri, Nagarjun and most remarkably the peoples’ poet, i.e. Jankavi, naturally left overarching effects on the modern Maithili and Indian literature.

Defying all odds, young Baidyanath started learning through traditional Sanskrit and Maithili education in his maternal village and later moved to Kashi in the quest of further knowledge. He was a great informal learner that adaptability might have shaped with the chronic adverseness he faced, but finally that established him as a major scholar of Maithili, Sanskrit, Hindi, Bangla, Pali and Prakrit.

Except of short overtures in family, 1930’s onward, Yatri remained completely align with writing and traveling. He was naturally closer to the instinct, rather than a follower of mechanical cognition order. Here, he was close to Tagore- both valued the natural human instinct in place of surpassable artificial affiliations.

The basic difference between these two great poets were of not world views but of approaches; Tagore with his aristocratic background was obviously an elitist unlike Yatri, whose background and construction of psyche both were akin to people-centric and based on the social realities.

Culturally, Mithila had commonalities with Bengal, but on the socio-economic counts there used to exist a huge drift between them, lack of urbanization and modern temptations were among the foremost reasons of reality check. Although, Yatri was also a keen naturalist like Tagore but again the differences were existing on the institutional levels. If Tagore had vision for an institution like Shantiniketan, and later globally institutionalizing his own literary and artistic works, Yatri, on the other hand had incessant devoid with such possibilities.

Though with his strong standing against the unfortunate social stigmas, he heralded a revolutionary wave of progressivism inside and outside of the Mithila and established himself as first modern Maithil on national and international literary arena.
Meanwhile, in the course of experiments with the knowledge, this freethinker came under the Buddhist influence, though it was short lived as he couldn’t suppress his embedded Maithili progressivism. But before that, Yatri travelled across the Tibet, Central Asia and Sri lanka (Kelania). Even after he left the Buddhist commune, his cult name ‘Nagarjun’ followed him forever, which reminds another contemporary literary figure and also a Buddhist, Rahul Sankritayan.

In the late 1930’s, he again entwined with Communism, though it remained his part of vision throughout the remaining life. He was progressive minded both in life and writing. Yatri had struggled against the authoritative extreme, equally during the independence struggle against British and in post-independent India against the authoritarianism of political classes.

He spent time in Jail in 1939-42 and again during emergency (1975-77). Like a true maverick, he remained attracted with the peoples’ causes for their upliftment as he struggled along with the eminent peasant leader, Swami Sahjanand Saraswati (Founder, Kisan Sabha) during colonial period and later under the Socialist movements including in JP Movement.

Because of such orientation, Yatri was considered one among the finest Bengali Hungry Generation Poets-naturally he is regarded only next to Tulsidas for stellar convictions on mass issues. Yatri’s literary expressions are universal, but whenever he touched the themes of Mithila, a unique and very close affinity came out there. He had in mind the prevailing realities of Mithila’s socio-economic scene and its challenges for an equitable and just society.

With broadness of canvasses and amazing hold over the translation skills, Yatri’s work hardly leaves any technical dialectism between Maithili-Hindi; most of his works are available in both the languages. As a poet, he could visualize beauty in oddness and grief in lavishness, so writing on the jackfruit or icefall at hill stations were equally kin to him.

His collection of poetries Patrahin Nagna Gaachh, Yugdhara, Satrange Pankhon Wali, Taalab ki Machhliyan, Khichhri Viplab Dekha Hamne, Hajaro-Hajaro Banhon Wali, Purani Juliyon ka Koras, Tume Kaha Tha, Aakhir Aisa Kya Kah Diya Maine, Es Gubbare ki Chhaya Me, Ye Danturit Mushkaan, Main Military ka Budhha Ghora, Baadal ko Ghirte Dekha Hai, and Paka Hai ye Kathal introduces to his wider reach among the common folks and intricacies of humanity.

He was never been a subversive preacher despite possessing strong anger against the existing social-political order, instead his progressive stand enabled him to be a rational chronicler. Yatri’s novels Ratinath ki Chachi, Balchanma, Baba Batesar Nath, Nai Puadh or Nav Turia, Barun ke Bete, Dukhmochan, Ugratara, Jamania ka Baba, Kumbhi Paak, Paaro, Aasman me Chand Taare exudes the diversity of Maithil as well as the Indian villages under new set of conditions.

With great exposure to the outside world, his memoirs, travelogue and even hundreds of published letters give delight and zest to the readers, while passing through his writings. His collection of essays-Annan Hinam Kriyanam, a work on culture-Desh Dashkam aa Krishak Deshkam, his travelogue-Baadlo ko Ghirte Dhekha Hai, his satire-Mantra Kavita and Aao Rani Han Dhoenge Palki and many Bangla poetries introduces to his broader conceptual grasp with amazing expressions over the range of themes.

Yatri had a unique credit of making a generation of writers/critics in both the Maithili and Hindi, fortunately that worked out well for literary discipline. Like Phanishwar Nath “Renu”, he never had to face the reckless wrath of preoccupied critics-even
Namwar Singh couldn’t maintain his ‘line of regionalism’ on his writings.

Despite all wandering and fame, he remained essentially a non-possessive man, attached to his route; his village Tarauni remained closest to his heart. In all probability, he would remain a loving ‘Baba’ for many generations.

Geniusity of Rajkamal Chaudhary

Maithili language and literature has been culminating through a long walk in history until it had seen an arrival of a new genre of writers in the mid part of twentieth century. Looking back to that generation and recalling giants like Rajkamal Chaudhary, Baidyanath Mishra ‘Yatri’ (Nagarjun), Harimohan Jha, Lalit, Dhumketu could be awestrucking for literary enthusiasts.

Rajkamal Chaudhary was a stock of genius who led Maithili literature to a new posture, which was dragging previously and largely failing to extrapolate the numerous unconventional approaching problems from the changing social dynamics.
Rajkamal Chaudhary was a doyen of Maithili literature and even one among the doyens in Indian literature, if the barrier of language could be taken lightly, then his work has universal claim with myriad of entrusted broad concerns.

Rajkamal Chaudhary was the most prolific writer in Maithili, here he justified his name. His family members deserves credit for tracing the jewels like quality in an infantile and naming him so meticulously as, Rajkamal, Manindra, Phul Babu (Traditional Maithili call name for loving one), much before he attained the scholarship and fame.
Rajkamal Chaudhary was an articulate user of letters and with amazing farsightedness. Hence he aspired and succeeded in three major areas of literary expressions: novel, story and poetry writings. Comparatively, prose was his major thirst of action, but still he penned numbers of poetries in both Maithili and Hindi-many of them though failed to appear in physical shape.

In spite of concealment, we are presently capable to clasp his six collection of poems, namely as Kankavati, Audit Report, Mukti Prasang, Vichitra, Swargandha and Macchli Jaal, and many more may be in future if proper strive would be made to retrieve those scribbled verses. Rajkamal was a promising creationist who barely allowed any irrational restraint to enter in his writings; his poetry reveals it likewise and its epithet, which consists high sensuality with diverse humane plights, sound immaculately.

Here, it would be quite imperative to recall that Rajkamal Chaudhary had conceited views about his Maithil identity and he never stepped down to derive metaphors for his creative vision from his native milieu. There were many reasons to postulate such affection for strife ridden Mithila through expounding the contemporary harsh realities of the region.

Quite naturally, Rajkamal was closely integrated with that intellectual fraternity, which used to keep eagle watch on the worldwide movements and overtly persuaded to modify the faulty axioms. Rajkamal remained unbeaten from the criticism for his daring and unconventional stand in his life time. He was an astute visionary of his generation, who pronounced inner contradiction of human mind as catalyst for all external complexities of social relationships.

Further, he emphasized on the western way of psychoanalysis and enviously drew points from Freudian psychoanalysis to unleash the unconventional and forbidden relationships. In his personal life and writing, he had upfronted with the elegiac concern for harsh realities besides enjoining to solve the persisting behavioural ills.

Rajkamal poignantly followed and tried to curb the ramifications of such deviations through his novels in Hindi-Machhli Mari Hui and Taash Ke Pattoon Ka Sahar are foremost among them, which tries to contempt the immoral fabrication and illicit relationships in elitist circles. His other novels in Hindi Nadi Bahti Thi, Sahar Tha Sahar Nahi Tha, Agni Snan, Bis Ranion ke Bioscope, Dehgatha (Suno Brijrani), Ek Anar Ek Bimar and Aaranyak similarly resembled his concern for the hippocratic guise of eliteness.

In Maithili, he has written three highly sensible novels: Aadikatha, Patharphul and Andolan- the last one was based on the Maithili language movement in Calcutta which also marked his own involvement in the movement.
Rajkamal was among the finest story tellers of his time, so not surprising, if his writings have been inspiring the succeeding literary generations. It is truly amazing to see the huge number of stories in both Maithili and Hindi he managed, apart from writing many plays and hundreds of essays in his short life.

His first published story, ‘Aprajita’ (Vaidehi, October1954) presents subtle account of perennial natural tragedy of Mithila, i.e. floods and its repercussions on human lives through a desperate train journey; his ‘Andhakar’ (Vaidehi, May1953) tells on contradictory relationship under the shadow of religion, partition and sin. ‘Phulparaswali’ (Vaidehi, August 1955) could be remembered as his magnum opus, which illuminates the moral strength of Maithil women in distressed phase.

Rajkamal reaches to the zenith through depicting Rickshaw puller protagonist, Shadashiv as his cousin and finally weaves a very meticulous set of relationships among them with centralizing the presence of Phulparaswali that symbolizes surviving ethical virtue of Maithil women. ‘Lalka Paag’ (Vaidehi, Katha Visheshank, 1955), which ends with the dramatic realisation, reveals untold moral victory of first wife over heart wrenching male chauvinism.

‘Kirtaniya’ (Vadehi, January1956) sketches the life of beggars; ‘Kopad’ (Vaidehi, May 1956) ends with the progressive ideas of inter caste marriage; ‘Damyantiharan’ (Vaidehi, July1956) comes with a story of conditionally deprived family indulged in flesh trade for survival which strike with similar delineation of east Bengal’s refugees plights in Ritwik Ghatak’s cinema like Bari Theke Paliye.

‘Channar Das’ (Vaidehi, September1956) tells the incarnation of a beggar’s pair for new life out from their existing profession; ‘Kiranmayee’ (Rachna Sangrah, 1956, in first All India Maithili Literary Conference) narrates the premature widowhood, sacrifice and empathies for plight but inability to materialize them in absence of resources.

Rajkamal’s ‘Satti Dhanukain’ (Pallavi May 1957) depicts the betrayal of husband with a commuted wife; ‘Kharid- Bikri’ (Pallav June 1957) raises the concern for immorality of perception with a wretched woman affected by the partition; ‘Babu Sahebak Tik’ (Vaidehi, July 1957) witnesses the metamorphosis of a falling feudal amidst the market pressure and leverages of city life; ‘Sahastra-Menka’ (Mithila Darshan Visheshank 1957) reveals the ill social treatment with helpless widows and wretched of Mithila.

‘Mugdha-Vimugdha’ (Pallav, March 1958) throws light on the debacle of unmatched marriage, ‘Mallhak Tol: Ek Chitra’ (Vaidehi, August 1958) is concerned with the plight of Mallah (fishermen) community, possess an important place in the Mithila’s fish crazy society, in very short space, he captures their actual reality. ‘Yatrak Aant’ (Mithila Darshan 1958) leads to a scenario of impoverished socio-economic structure of Calcutta in which a helpless parent caught in severe daily struggle to save their ill son and dignity of daughter in law.

‘Kamalmukhi Kaniyan’ (Kathaparag 1958) candidly attacks on the pseudo perceptions of dominant male community about women-it’s a frontal attack on the male chauvinism. ‘Aakash-Ganga’ (Mithila Darshan Visheshank 1959) is an account of a falling feudal father and his relationship with estranged daughter, who married against his wishes-the story concludes with his proactive and judicious move, which also marks the inception of flexibility within feudal structure.

‘Kadambari Upkatha’ (Vaidehi March 1960) is based on the frank bearing of humane conviction of a childless widow, who crosses all the artificial boundaries of caste, opportunism, jealousness etc; ‘Panidubbi’ (Mithila Mihir 10th May 1964) reflects the inner state of a newly wedded women during her first journey on steamer, she simply lost in her circle of belongingness, recalls the closed nature of contemporary Maithil women.

His ‘Surma Sagun Bichare Na’ (Mithila Mihir, 9th May 1965) moves around the infatuation for bereaved wife that seems like a dutiful sacrifice and also transcend his honest commitments in relationships; ‘Ghari’ (Mithial Mihir, 30th January 1966) shows the romance in inter religious web which eventually conclude with the interference of domestic compulsions.

‘Maach’ (Mithila Mihir, 30th January 1966) is a spectacular delineation of ‘craze’ for the auspicious fish among Maithil’s, this story is loaded with heavy symbolism and sophisticated representation of Maithil life philosophy for a cross cultural debate. ‘Sanjhak Gaach’ (Mithila Mihir 13th March 1966) is stuffed with the gloomy inferences from its protagonist who caught in wrenched contradiction about his prospective role with belongingness.

‘Samudra’ (Mithila Mihir 11th September 1966) presents the confrontation of female protagonist for her existential being in broad framework, it’s a saga of unmatched matrimonial tie-up; ‘Param Priya Nirmohi Balam Hammar Pranpati’ (Mithila Mihir, 30th October1966) is consist with a marathon letter of newly wedded wife to her husband about her expectations in full sense of humour.

It was the characteristics of Rajkamal Chaudhary to present a serious theme in satirical way. ‘Kichhu Alikhit Patra’ (Maithili Darshan), written with the pseudo name of Anamica Chaudhary in extraordinary and candid craft, exposes the plight of subjugated women of Mithila.

This story touches the ultimate height of realistic fiction. ‘Gamme Rati Rati Me Gam’ (Bharti Mandan) virtually breaks the illusion from village; he found same sinful habitual practices in village too as they were frequent in the urban space. ‘Bahindai, Aspatal, Bangam Aa Kono Ekta Sapna’ (Mithila Mihir, 30th April1967) narrates the story of Bahindai, a young widow faces a new proposal of material life but remains undetermined, this is another jolt on the unmatched matrimony that creates such scene. ‘Ekta Champakali Ekta Vishdhar’ (Mithila Mihir, 15th June 1975) appeared posthumously, which reached to the real causes of improper marriage.

He had chosen a punishing hardship on personnel front, nature too given only its cruel verdict for this epoch maker. The eventuality came with his untimely demise on 7th June1967. Rajkamal or Phool Babu was loved and hated among his folks, but his premature demise, combating with deadly disease left deep strain among the literary enthusiasts in Mithila and outside of it.
Over four and half decades of his death, his works have still not received the deserved prominence and respect.

Lalit: Man of Change in Maithili Literature

Lalit, like his name came out with novelty in Maithili literary scene in 1950’s through his sensible mass concern. Officially, Lalitesh Mishra or affectionately ‘Bachha’ was born on April 6, 1932 in a village of scholars-Chanpura that despite falling in the catchments region of Adhwara river group has unique distinction of intellectual contribution.

Geographically, it is situated in the western side of Benipatti Sub-division (Madhubani district), which was once known as ‘Masco of Mithila’ for its strong Communist base and extensive land reform movements. He intertwined to literature with sturdy enrapture and published his first story in Maithili, ‘Kabula’ (Vaidehi, 1950). Despite sporadic writing, Lalit’s works are insightful for reckoning the Mithila of his time.

Lack of proper documentation and non-availability of older issues of old Maithili magazines restricts a reader to enter in Lalit’s writing. In his total forty-seven published stories, only twelve could be assembled in his lone story collection (Pratinidhi Kahani, Maithili Art Press, Navkiran Prakashan, Calcutta, 1964).

Among his two novels, only Prithviputra was published from Maithili Academy (1984), before that it was appeared serially in a prominent contemporary Magazine, Mithila Mihir (10/05/1960 to 5/7/1964). Also about a dozen of his essays transfixed the enthusiasts of his generation and added new paradigm within existing literary space. His remarkable stories sensibly delineate the socio-cultural intricacies, even within the humble canvasses. Without relying on complex narration, he had vision to entangle with very serious existential issues.

Prithviputra stormed the Maithili literary world with underneath subjectivism. Though the works were quite analomous from Lalit as he had already crossed a long stretch convincing people towards the approaches to see the social change in new light. The plots of the novel were woven in Farbisganj (Kosi belt) as it starts with the impact of social changes on the conventional social system immediately after the independence of India. Consequences of the land reform widely take place in the entire theme.

Lalit had ingenuity for tracing and dwelling on key issues of his time, though he had tenuous hold on his life like every mortal. Merely at the age of fifty-one, he passed away on April 14, 1983 with battling Liver Syrosis in Betia. Prominent weekly Mithila Mihir’s Lalit special (29th May 1983) had awoken the sleeping consine of Maithil society for the illustrating works of this great man. Within two decades, his death was the second traumatic casualty for the Maithili literature followed by the untimely demise of Rajkamal Chaudhary.

Theirs untimely departure left Maithili literary writings less spirited. They both remained very close and heralded a new chapter in Maithili literature. Lalit had translated Rajkamal’s epic story, Phulparas Wali into the Maithili and later written Mukti, which stands opposite and its protagonist is more radical than the woman lead of Rajkamal, who appears moralistic. Lalit remained humble in his relationship with old friends and literary companions. On several occasions, he laid stress that

Rajkamal‘s "Kankavati" was a well articulated poetic work in Hindi.Today, Lalit’s contribution is largely unknown. Proper documentation and translation of his works in other Indian languages would give a new lease to his prolific literary works. Those long waited initiatives must begin now, as any further delay may permanently fix the Maithili literary enthusiasts as ‘Principled forgetter- a dooming zone where creative things ceases to exist!

Dhumketu: An Unexposed Giant of Maithili Literature
On 25th January 1932, Bholanath Jha ‘Dhumketu’ was born in an elite family of village Koilakh. His transformation from Bholanath Jha to Dhumketu was an initiation of his revolutionary journey that furthered his consistent switching in material life.

Dhumketu had enormous impact of Freudian psychology like his contemporary great writer, Rajkamal Chaudhary. Ideologically too, both were very close. Both defied the orthodox patterns of Maithil society and tried to reach in very complex corner of human mind. Dhumketu believed story as a struggle between ID and EGO, so inner conflicts of mind covers his literary themes in big way.

His first published story in Maithili was Didi (1952) which got high acclaim in literary circles that further encouraged him emphatically. Though he was inclined towards the prose, but later he had also found taste to write some great poetry in Maithili like Dak Peen (1956) and Ek Ber Pher Rajdhani Main (1977)-both the anthology deserves better attention.

It was quite unfortunate for a great writer like him to got published only one collection of stories (Agurban, 1980) in his life time, even though he had written more than forty stories, two novels and dozens of poems besides some memoirs, travelogues and articles. One among his novels ‘Sannipat’ serially published in an obscure magazine, Bharti Mandan and his second novel ‘Mor Par’ (2000) could be published only after his death.

His other two works were published posthumously; Udyast (collection of stories, 2002-03) and second was Nav Kavitak Navinta. He has written two memoirs in the fond memory of his contemporary, Rajkamal Chaudhary. First, ‘Vishwasht Avishwashniya’ and second, ‘Suryapatan’ (Sunset) - both were published in Mithila Mihir, just after the premature demise of Rajkamal Chaudhary. Even his two obscure articles posses the qualities of elegant narration.

The stories of Dhumketu, like ‘Manukhak Devta’, ‘Kulta’ and ‘Bihairi’ are genuinely deserve to be compared with Yatri’s Paro (A short novel) and Rajkamal Chaudhary’s Sugna Sagun Bichare. A very minute depiction of relationships, which often crosses the socially approved threshold are unique characteristics of these stories. Dhumketu made scintillating efforts to unravel the ugly orthodox norms of Maithil society.

On some occasions, he even sounded too vocal and impatient about the existing deformities. His less known stories like, Hamara Aaur and Shivir present a very candid delineation of deteriorating moral standard in society. His writings are diverse and sensually very sound; most of his writings justify it.

Stories like, Dansh presents a very complex relationship in a long time frame between male and female protagonist. Sanbandh Bodh and Manukhak Devta present two very different and unusual attitudes towards relationship; Sambandh Bodh visualises lost relationship to an extreme level.

On the other end, Manukhak Devta narrates an awkward relationship between a maritally disturbed daughter and an aged widower father. The story constructed around the ‘social limits’, exposes unpleasant conditions around the corner. Dhumketu with his serious narration tried to assault on the discriminatory matrimonial structure of Mithila.

The story ends with many question marks on the prevailing social conditions. His other story, Pita focuses on the relationship between father and son, in which father ethically supersedes with making a fine balance in family order.

Dhumketu’s following three stories deserve more accolades for the sensible orientation of themes. First, Bauasin shows an acute picture of falling feudal structure of Mithila, where its lone survivor appears a metaphor for the serious deterioration. Second Vightan lucidly visualises the child psychology and further articulate with emphasis on conventions which ends with the honest confessions of prime characters.

Third, Udyast establishes a minute observation of disabled and downtrodden life, which is generally overlooked from the mainframe of social system. Indeed, Dhumketu proved his commitment towards the grave mass issues, which assisted him in broadening of his creative horizons and further allowed in constituting his own desired creative world.

Dhumketu, reached to the zenith of his creativity by writing most comprehensive and detailed novel in Maithili, Mor Par (2000), which is primarily based on the period from 1945 to 1970, though in patches, also consists some pictures of 1942 movements.

The novel emerges from the transformational phase of India’s independence movement and in later course with the politics of development; with well thought out points, it raises questions on the relevance of Independence.

Dhumketu had maximized the limit of literature in inquiring social and individual deformities, and also some goodness. He thoroughly dreamt and struggled for a tolerant and egalitarian socio-economic order and less hippocratic cultural practices.

-Atul K Thakur

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